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  • (ii) S1 and S2 are in equals in terms of evidential processing regarding at .

    S1 and S2 are broad epistemic peers regarding just in case they are in an equally good epistemic position regarding

    : S1 and S2 are epistemic peers regarding at just in case S1 and S2 are in an equally good epistemic position regarding at .

    2.2 Why Care About Peer Disagreement?

    One might wonder why epistemologists have focused on the epistemic significance of peer disagreement. After all, there is good reason to believe that peer disagreements simply do not occur in the actual world. While the world is rife with disagreements, typically there is at least epistemic advantage held by one of the parties: one of them has a little more evidence, one of them has thought about the issue a little more, one of them is a little more open-minded, and so forth. So peer disagreement is a very idealized kind of disagreement. It might be puzzling that while the epistemic significance of disagreement is often motivated by looking at real-world political, religious, scientific, and philosophical disagreements, the debate quickly turns to highly idealized cases of peer disagreements.

    It is worth investigating the epistemic significance of peer disagreement for a number of reasons. First, it is intrinsically interesting. Even if there were no real-world applications, peer disagreement presents a kind of problem that philosophers like to think hard about. Second, focusing on such idealized cases of disagreement can help us isolate the epistemic significance of the itself. Peer disagreement allows us to control for other mitigating epistemic factors that come into play when one party has a superior epistemic position on the disputed matter. Controlling for these factors, and imparting such a symmetry into the disagreement, can be informative even if it is artificial. Third, there are real-world cases of disagreement such that while it is unlikely that the parties are exact epistemic peers, it is unclear which party is in the better epistemic position. Such real-world cases of disagreement plausibly have the same epistemic significance as peer disagreement even though strictly speaking peerhood does not obtain. After all, it is the of peer disagreement that bears the real epistemic weight.

    With this understanding of epistemic peers in hand, we now turn to examining what epistemic significance peer disagreement might have.

    3 . Steadfast Views of Peer Disagreement

    According to Steadfast Views of peer disagreement, gaining evidence that you are in a peer disagreement about a proposition does not call for you to make any doxastic revision. These views answer “no” to Q1 and claim that disagreement is not of any real epistemic significance. A Steadfast View of peer disagreement has been motivated in a number of ways, several of which are worthy of consideration here.

    3.1 First-Order Evidence and Higher-Order Evidence

    Motivation for a Steadfast View of peer disagreement has been thought to come from the distinction between first-order evidence and higher-order evidence. First-order evidence regarding a proposition is evidence directly pertaining to that proposition, whereas higher-order evidence regarding a proposition is evidence about the evidence pertaining to that proposition. So the Consequence Argument is some first-order evidence for incompatibilism, while the fact that Peter van Inwagen (an intelligent, informed, and open-minded individual) endorses the argument is some higher-order evidence regarding incompatibilism—it is evidence that the Consequence Argument is a good argument. More generally, finding out how an individual has evaluated a piece of evidence is itself (higher-order) evidence about that piece of evidence. Applied to cases of disagreement, your peer’s opinion on a matter is evidence that the evidence supports his or her opinion. If he or she is likely to have judged the evidence correctly, and he or she believes , then that is evidence that the evidence supports believing .

    Thomas Kelly (2005) has presented a powerful argument that what you are justified in believing in a case of peer disagreement is entirely a matter of the first-order evidence. Let be the first-order evidence you have regarding at time 1 (1). At 1, you do not have any evidence about any disagreement regarding So

    = the original first-order evidence regarding .

    At time 2 (2), you obtain evidence that you are party to a peer disagreement about . So at 2 your evidence pertinent to has gone from to *:

    Both (ii) and (iii) are included in your evidence pertinent to at 2 since we are granting that this higher-order evidence is evidence pertaining to . Kelly claims that there is no good reason to believe that your evidence moving from to * will result in a change in what you (or your peer) are justified in believing about . Since you and your peer are epistemic peers, it is plausible that your opinions on the matter are to be given equal weight—that these pieces of higher-order evidence are equally good. But if so, then it appears that your higher-order evidence will simply cancel out. Yet if the two pieces of higher-order evidence are counterbalanced, then what remains is your first-order evidence relevant to . So what you are justified in believing about is determined entirely by your first-order evidence, but this has not changed, so you (and your peer) are justified in believing precisely the same thing about both before and after the discovery of the disagreement.

    While this argument is compelling, it plays on a mischaracterization of the subject’s evidence at 1. At 1, prior to discovering the disagreement, you not only have the relevant first-order evidence, E, you also have the higher-order evidence about yourself and your opinion about (ii) from *. So even if the higher-order evidence about your peer cancels this higher-order evidence out, it still appears that at least some doxastic conciliation is called for since (ii) ought to be seen as part of your original evidence on the matter.

    *= (i) (the original first-order evidence regarding ).

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    Basta ganar o perder un par de kilos para provocar cambios sustanciales en nuestro organismo . Tras tomar miles de millones de mediciones para caracterizar lo que sucede en el cuerpo humano durante el aumento y la pérdida de peso a unos niveles que nadie había hecho antes, un grupo de investigadores de la Universidad de Stanford (Estados Unidos) ha constatado que las variaciones de peso, incluso por periodos cortos de tiempo, modifican el organismo a nivel molecular y provocan cambios en el microbioma, el sistema cardiovascular, el sistema inmunitario e incluso la forma en que se expresan los genes de cada persona.

    “Se trata de un estudio muy complejo y bien detallado en el cual los investigadores han tomado un grupo reducido de personas con un índice de masa corporal que los sitúa entre el peso normal y el sobrepeso, los han diferenciado entre si eran o no resistentes a la insulina (lo que aumenta la predisposición a sufrir diabetes, hipertensión o problemas cardiovasculares en el futuro), y les han pautado una dieta con exceso de calorías durante un mes para hacerlos engordar unos 2,6 kilos; y mediante análisis muy sofisticados han ido viendo qué pasaba en su cuerpo, qué genes se expresaban, qué proteínas había en la sangre, cómo cambiaba el patrón de su microbiota intestinal...”, explica Albert Goday, endocrinólogo e investigador clínico del Hospital del Mar. Y detalla que los resultados de esa batería de estudios no dejan lugar a dudas de que esa ganancia de poco más de dos kilos provoca cambios muy notables en todos esos parámetros.

    “No esperaba que 30 días de comer en exceso bastaran para cambiar las vías del corazón”, dice el autor del estudio 

    Según describen los autores del estudio en un artículo publicado en Cell Systems, la subida de peso hizo que las poblaciones bacterianas se transformaran, las respuestas inmunitarias y los marcadores de inflamación aumentaran, y los circuitos moleculares asociados con la enfermedad cardiaca se activaran. “Los cambios observados por los investigadores de Stanford son coherentes con los problemas de salud que vemos en las personas que ganan peso, como enfermedades relacionadas con el corazón”, comenta Goday.

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